PERCEPTION OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS REGARDING ACADEMIC FAILURE OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION

Gul Muhammad Shaikh, Rabia Khan, Rehan Khan, Rahila Yasmeen

Abstract


Background: Academic failure adds extra pressure to emotional intelligence of students and this may lead to psychological disturbance. The objective of this study was to explore perception of students and teachers regarding academic failure of undergraduate medical students in Lahore, Pakistan.

Materials & Methods: This qualitative exploratory study was conducted at Department of Medical Education, University College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Lahore, Pakistan from January 2018 to October 2018. Sample included nine MBBS students who took their last examination in year 2017 and five teachers, all from University College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Lahore. Sampling was purposive. These nine students included five who graduated without failure and four who experienced two/more failures. Medical students were interviewed via two focus groups, whereas face to face semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were done for teachers. Interview questionnaires were designed on basis of attribution theory. The fundamental question of study was “What are the reasons behind undergraduate medical students’ failure in annual examination?” with five more questions. The interviews were transcribed in English and sent back to participants for member checking. The interviews were organized in ATLAS.ti software for thematic analysis based on Weiner’s Attribution Theory. Open coding was done after familiarization of data, leading to formation of categories, sub-themes and themes related to our conceptual framework.

Results: 160 open codes were condensed to 35 axial codes leading to two themes. Main reasons for students’ failure in examinations perceived by both students and teachers were lack of ability, lack of effort and lack of motivation. Additionally, the students attributed bad luck to academic failure. Other factors included were teachers’ related factors, curriculum related factors and negative students’ attitude.

Conclusion: Medical institutions must take into account reasons for academic failure among medical students and address those issues to improve their performance.


Keywords


Academic Failure; Medical Students; Medical Education; Focus Groups; Curriculum; Faculty; Motivation; Attitude; Pakistan.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Haglind D. Coping with success and failure: A qualitative study on athletes and coaches in track and field [thesis]. Halmstad, Sweeden: Halmstad University; 2003.

MBBS examination: 84.7% of the students pass. The Express Tribune [serial online]. 2014 Jan 25 [cited 2019 Aug 12]. Available at: https://tribune.com.pk/story/662982/mbbs-examination-84-7-of-the-students-pass

Regier J. Why is academic success important? Saskatchewan School Boards Association. Available at: https://saskschoolboards.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/2011SIAST.pdf

Brunstein JC, Gollwitzer PM. Effects of failure on subsequent performance: the importance of self-defining goals. J Pers Soc Psychol 1996; 70(2):395-407. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.395

Atkinson JW. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychol Rev 1957; 64(6, Pt. 1):359-72. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0043445

Dunlosky J, Rawson KA, Marsh EJ, Nathan MJ, Willingham DT. Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychol Sci Public Interest 2013 Jan; 14(1):4-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100612453266

Yadav M, BaniAta H. Factorizing demotivation, finding motivation: a constructive approach to quality enhancement. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci 2013; 70:120-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.047

Weiner B. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychol Rev 1985 Oct; 92(4):159-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4948-1_6

Gülten Genç. Attributions to success and failure in English language learning: the effects of gender, age and perceived success. European J Educ Studies 2016; 2 (12):25-43.

Malle BF. Attribution Theories: how people make sense of behavior. Theor Soc Psychol 2011; 72-95.

Dent JA, Harden RM, editors. A practical guide for medical teachers. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2013. Available at: http://edomsp.sbmu.ac.ir/uploads/A_Practical_Guide_for_Medical_Teachers.pdf

Gould JL. The biology of learning. Annu Rev Psychol 1986; 37(1):163-92. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.37.020186.001115

Kathryn P. The effects of self-assessment on academic performance [unpublished thesis]. Baltimore, MD, USA: Goucher College; 1916. Available at: https://mdsoar.org/handle/11603/3084

Lesgold AM, Pellegrino JW. Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. 1st ed. Heidelberg Germany: Springer; 1978. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2535-2_1

General Medical Council. Tomorrow's Doctors (2009)

outcomes and standards for undergraduate medical education. [cited 2019 Aug 12]. Available at: https://www.gmc-uk.org/-/media/documents/tomorrows-doctors---to-be-withdrawn-on-01-01-2016_pdf-62052357.pdf

Swanwick T, editor. Understanding medical education-Evidence, theory and practice. 2nd ed. West Sussex, UK: John Willy; 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118472361

Boruchovitch E. A study of causal attributions for success and failure in mathematics among Brazilian students. Interam J Psychol 2004; 38(1):53-60.

Berkeley University of California. Overview of learning theories. [homepage on the Internet]. [cited 2019 Aug 12]. Available at: https://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/learning-overview/

Glatthorn A, Boschee F, Whitehead BM, Boschee BF. Curriculum Leadership: Strategies for Development and Implementation; California: Sage; 2012.

Al-Eraky MM. Twelve tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education. Med Teach 2015; 37(11):1018-25. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1020288

Yelon SL, Ford JK, Anderson WA. Twelve tips for increasing transfer of training from faculty development programs. Med Teach 2014 Nov; 36 (11):945-50. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.929098

Connecticut State Department of Education. Guidelines for Identifying and educating students with serious emotional disturbance. [cited 2019 Aug 20]. Available at: https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SDE/Publications/edguide/ed_guidelines.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/18.02.826

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Gul Muhammad Shaikh, Rabia Khan, Rehan Khan, Rahila Yasmeen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

JOURNAL INDEXING