Muhammad Naeem, Tariq Ahmad, Muhammad Kamran Khan, Hazrat Ullah


Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological disorders. Patients with recurrent urinary tract stones may have underlying metabolic abnormality. The objectives of this study were to determine the gender and age distribution, and frequency of common urinary metabolic abnormalities in patients with recurrent urinary tract stones.
Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Urology, Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar from August 2011 to June 2012. Patients above 13 years presenting with recurrent urinary tract stones were included. 24-hour urine sample was sent for metabolic abnormalities. Gender, age in years, and age grouping were demographic while presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hy¬pocitraturia were research variables.
Results: Out of 70 patients, males were 45 (64.3%) and females were 25 (35.7%). Mean age was 29.72± 8.5 (16-68) years. Hypercalciuria was noted in 34 (48.60%) patients with 20 (28.6%) males and 14 (20.0%) females. The highest number of patients i.e 21(30.0%) was noted in age group 21-30 years. Hyperuricosuria was noted in 12 (17.19%) patients. The highest number of patients i.e. nine (12.9%) was noted in age group 21-30 years. Hyperoxaluria was reported in 16 (22.90%) patients. The highest number of patients i.e. nine (12.9%) was noted in age group 21-30 years. Hypocitraturia was noted in 22 (31.44%) patients. The highest number i.e. 14 (20.0%) with hypocitraturia was noted in age group 21-30 years.
Conclusion: Recurrent stone former have high frequency of metabolic abnormalities. Prompt treatment of these abnormalities will decrease the chances of recurrent stone formation.


Urolithiasis, Urinary Tract Stones, Renal Colic; Hematuria; Renal Failure; Urinalysis; Hypercalciuria; Hyperoxaluria; Hyperuricosuria; Hypocitraturia.

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