Fazle Bari, Syed Faheem Shah, Syed Sajid Munir, Bushra Rehman, Hazir Rahman, Aziz Merjan, Muhammad Qasim


Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is major health problem. The objectives of the study was to diagnose HCV infection in multi-transfused beta thalassemia major patients by using ICT, ELISA and real time PCR.
Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Pathology, Bacha Khan Medical Complex, Mardan from April 2013 to January, 2015. Sample size was 44. Sampling technique was purposive. Inclusion criteria was multi-transfused patients of beta-thalassemia major. Those patients who were on HCV therapy were excluded. Demographic variables were gender and age groups. Research variable was presence of HCV. The study was approved from the departmental ethical committee. Informed written consent was taken from patients. All the patients were subjected to HCV detection using ICT, ELISA and real time PCR. All the variables being categorical were analyzed through count and percentages. The data was analyzed by chi-square test. The correlation between different techniques was calculated by Cohen’s K coefficient test.
Results: Out of 44 cases, 52.2% were males and 47.7% were females. ICT diagnosed HCV in79.5% subjects, ELISA in 63.6% subjects and on real time PCR, HCV was detected in 43.1% subjects. Cohen’s Correlation was done. These Kappa values confirmed a weak correlation between any of two HCV diagnostic techniques. Significant difference was detected among male patients as compared to female patients and among age group of 15-17 years by the three diagnostic techniques.
Conclusion: It is better to employ a coupled diagnostic strategy for the diagnosis of HCV infection among the multi-transfused beta thalassemic major patients than using a single technique.


Hepatitis; beta-Thalassemia; Hepatitis C virus.

Full Text:




Andree Z, Wolfgang K, Helgal M, Gunther J, Michael R. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Directed Against Hyper Variable Region 1 in Acute Self- limiting and Chronic Infection due to Hepatitis C Virus. J Virol 1997;51:4123-7.

Butt T, Amin MS. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections among young adult males in Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J 2008;14:791-7.

Emilie E, Michel V, Patrick M, Tarik A. Genomics and HCV Infection Progression of Fibrosis and Treatment Rresponse. J Hepatol 2012;57:1110-25.

Alter MJ. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. World J Gastroenterol 2007;13:2436-41.

Nazir S, Faraz A, Shahzad N , Ali N , Khan MA, Iqbal M et al. Prevalence of HCV in β-thalassemia major patients visiting tertiary care hospitals in Lahore – Pakistan. Adv Life Sci 2014;1:197-201.

Ali SA, Donahue RMJ, Qureshi H, Vermund SH. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Pakistan: prevalence and risk factors. Int J Infect Dis 2009;13:9-19.

Bastani MN, Salim FB, Keyvani H , Esghaei M , Monavari SH, Ebrahimi M. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian patients with beta thalassemia major. Arch Virol 2016;161:1899-906.

Herbert L, Muncie J, Ames, Campbell S. Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. Am Fam Physician 2009;80:339-44.

Ching SH, Shih JH, Hung CC, Tai CT, Chen HL, Wei FN et al. Association of IL28B gene Variation with Mathematical Modeling of Viral Kinetics in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients with IFN plus Ribaviral Therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108:3719-24.

Yousefi M, Dehesh MM, EbadI M , Dehghan A. The Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients With Thalassemia in Zabol City of Iran. Int J Infect 2017;4:e37009.

Alavian SM, Tabatabaei SV, Lankarani KB. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus Infection in Eastern Mediterranean countries a Quantitative review of literature. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2010;12:365-76.

Hayder I, Ahmed W, Alam SE. Comparison of Different ICT Kits for HBsAg and Anti HCV Using Gold Standard ELISA Pak. J Med Res Vol 2012;51:72-6

Qureshi H, Bile KM, Jooma R, Alam SE, Afridi HU. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections in Pakistan: findings of a national survey appealing for effective prevention and control measures. East Mediterr Health J 2010;6:15-23.

Inamullah I, Muhammad A, Habib G, Sajid A, Muhammad A, Ali L et al. Hepatitis C virus Genotypes Circulating in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhaw, Pakistan. J Virol 2011;8:16. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-16

Ataei B, Hashemipour M, Kassaian N, Hassannejad R, Nokhodian R, Adibi P. Prevalence of ANTI HCV Infection in Patients of Beta- thalassemia in Asfahan-Iran. Int J Prev Med 2012;3:118-23.

KIani RH, Anwar M, Waheed U, Asad MJ, Abbasi S, Zaheer HA. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan. J Blood Transfus 2016;8135649.

Waqar H, Naz J, Uzma F, Attiya R, Arshad S. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in Urban Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery. Pak J Ophthalmol 2013;29:147-50

Ain Q, Ahmad L, Hassan M, Rana SM, Jabeen F. Prevalence of β-thalassemic Patients Associated With Consanguinity and Anti-HCV - Antibody Positivity – A Cross Sectional Study. Pakistan J Zool 2011;43:29-36.

Saeed U, Paricha ZZ. Thalassemia: Impact of Consanguineous Marriages on most Prevalent Monogenic Disorders of Humans. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2016;6:837-40

Muhammad R, Shanshorya R, Ibrahim A, Solimanc H, Nagyd M, Abdoul H. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infection among Children with B-thalassemia Major in Mid Delta, Egypt: a Single Centre Study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2012:1-5.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences