Harish Kumar, Adnan Bashir, Khadijah Abid, Nabeel Naeem Baig


Background: Snake bite remains major public health problems worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with snake bite in population of Karachi, Pakistan.
Materials & Methods: It was cross-sectional study conducted at Department of General Medicine, Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan from 11th June 2016 to 10th August 2017. 300 patients with snake bite were selected. Age, gender, acute kidney injury, vomiting and in-hospital mortality were variables. Except age, all variables were nominal and were analyzed by frequency and percentage. Cox-proportional-hazard regression model was applied and hazard ratios were calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the strength of association between predictors i.e. age, gender, AKI and vomiting and outcome (in-hospital mortality). Kaplan-Meier and time to event plot were used to investigate all patients who were on follow-up for 7 days from admission. Log-rank test was used to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality for significant independent influence on prognosis at alpha .05.
Results: The mean age of the sample was 27.7±14.58 years. Out of a sample of 300 patients, 221 (73.7%) were males and 79 (26.3%) females. The frequency (%) of AKI was 102 (66%), vomiting 122 (40.7%) and of in-hospital mortality 31 (10.3%). The probability of survival at day 7 was 81.8%. Vomiting [hazard ratio 6.86 (95% CI: 2.78-16.93), p=<0.001] and acute kidney injury [hazard ratio 3.85 (95% CI: 1.75-8.45), p=<0.001] were associated with higher risk of death in adjusted analysis.
Conclusion: Acute kidney injury and vomiting are strong predictors of mortality among patients with snake bite. These predictors can be helpful for clinicians in assessing prognosis of their patients more accurately and by early management of these factors, mortality & morbidity can be reduced.


Snake Bites; Acute Kidney Injury; Mortality; Vomiting; Risk factors; Survival; Antivenoms; Poisoning.

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