Khurshid Anwar, Shehryar Khan, Muhammad Afaq Ali, Mohammad Javaid, Muhammad Ismail Khan, Isteraj Shahabi


Background: Dysphonia is common in children due to which they suffer adversely both at home and at school. The objectives of this study were to determine the sex & age-wise distribution and causes of dysphonia in children.
Materials & Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of ENT and Head & Neck surgery, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018. Sample size consisted of 72 patients presenting with chronic dysphonia, selected using the non-probability consecutive sampling technique Inclusion criteria were children presenting with dysphonia for more than 4 weeks. Exclusion criteria were children with stammering, puberphonia, acute respiratory distress, deaf mutism, speech articulation and increased or decreased nasal twang in voice. The demographic variables were sex and age groups and research variables were causes of dysphonia. All variables except age being categorical were analyzed by frequency and percentages carried out using SPSS 16.0 for windows.
Results: Mean age of the sample of patients was 8.78+3.6 with range of 12 years (3-15). Out of 72 patients, 44(61.11%) were boys and 28(38.89%) girls with boy to girl ratio of 1.57:1. Chronic nonspecific laryngitis was the commonest etiology followed by reflux laryngitis. Functional dysphonia was noted only in girls and vocal nodules, vocal hematoma and post traumatic laryngeal stenosis were noted only in boys.
Conclusion: Chronic nonspecific laryngitis and reflux laryngitis were the commonest causes especially in males less than 9 years of age. Vocal nodules, vocal hematoma and post traumatic laryngeal stenosis were found only in boys and functional dysphonia was noted only in adolescent girls.


Dysphonia; Paediatric Age; Vocal Nodules; Voice Disorders; Laryngitis.

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