FREQUENCY AND DETERMINANTS OF DEPRESSIVE ILLNESS AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN

Adnan Khan, Ijaz Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ilyas, Hussain Ahmad, Muhammad Marwat, Ghazi Khan

Abstract


Background: Depression is much more common among infertile women as compared to the general population. The objectives of our study were to determine the frequency of depression among infertile women and association of depression among infertile women with age groups, level of education, and duration of infertility.
Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Gomal Medical College, D.I.Khan, Pakistan from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2018. Sample size was 145 women with primary infertility selected through consecutive sampling technique. The demographic variables were; age groups, level education, duration of primary infertility and research variables was presence of depression. Observed and expected frequency for depression was analyzed by chi-square goodness-of-fit test. Association of depression with age groups, level of education and infertility duration were analyzed by chi-square test of independence.
Results: Out of 145 infertile women. 122(84.1%;78.15-90.05%) had depression whereas 23(15.9%;9.95-21.85%) had no depression. Thirty seven out of 145(25.52%) women in the age group <25 years had depression, 76 out of 145(52.41%)women in the age group 25-34 years had depression. Twenty five out of 145(17.24%) infertile women in the uneducated category had depression, 28 out of 145(19.31%) infertile women in the primary education category had depression whereas 16(11.03%) and 53(36.55%) infertile women in the middle and matriculation and more categories respectively had depression.
Conclusion: Frequency of depression in infertile women was high especially in women having infertility duration of 1-3 years. The difference in frequency of depression between the sample and population was statistically significant. Presence of depression was associated with infertility duration.

Keywords


Infertility; Depressive illness.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alhassan A, Ziblim AR, Muntaka S. A survey on depression among infertile women in Ghana. BMC women’s health 2014;14(1):1.

Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys 2012;9(12):e1001356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001356. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Aarts JW, Van Empel IW, Boivin J, Nelen WL, Kremer JA, Verhaak CM. Relationship between quality of life and distress in infertility: a validation study of the Dutch FertiQoL. Hum Reprod 2011; 26:1112-8. doi: 10.1093/humrep/der051. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

Erdem K, Apay SE. A sectional study: the relationship between perceived social support and depression in turkish infertile women. Int J Fertil Steril. 2014 Oct;8(3):303-14. Epub 2014 Nov 1.

Ali HS, Shams H, Kessani LV, Ali R. prevalence and predicators among pakistani infertile women. Infertility 2015; 13:11.

Riessman CK. Stigma and everyday resistance practices: Childless women in South India. Gender and society 2000; 14:111-35.

Unisa S. Childlessness in Andhra pardesh, India: treatment-seeking and consequences. Reproductive Health Matters 1999; 7:54-64.

Guz H, Ozkan A, Sarisoy G, Yanik F, Yanik A. Psychiatric symptoms in Turkish infertile women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 24:267–71.

Gulseren L, Cetinay P, Tokatlioglu B, Sarikaya OO, Gulseren S, Kurt S. Depression and anxiety levels in infertile Turkish women. J Reprod Med 2006; 51:421–6.

Lee TY, Sun GH. Psychosocial response of Chinese infertile husbands and wives. Arch Androl 2000; 45:143–8.

Sami N, Ali TS. Health seeking behavior of couples with secondary infertility. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006; 16:261–4.

Bhatti LI, Fikree FF, Khan A. The quest of infertile women in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study. Soc Sci Med 1999; 49:637–49.

Raosoft® sample size calculator. Seattle, WA, USA: Raosoft Inc.; 2004. Available at: http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences