Umbreen Naz, Farhan Sarwar, Muhammad Adnan Sarwar, Muhammad Mudassar Ashraf, Shoaib Zafar, Muhammad Waqas Khadam


Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervical area or cervix which may present with the vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer gets in advanced stage. Dysplasia seen on cervical biopsy uses the term cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and is grouped into mild (CIN-1), moderate (CIN-2) and severe (CIN-3). The severity of CIN depends upon cellular disorganization, cellular immaturity, increased mitotic activity and nuclear abnormalities. The nuclear atypia, extent of mitotic activity and immature cellular proliferations identifies the degree of dysplasia. Thus, epithelial thickness which shows differentiation is the useful feature in decision about severity of CIN. Treatment of this cancer may be ablative and/ or excision. Cryotherapy is a reasonable treatment of CIN-1 and CIN-2 but not of CIN-3 which is severe cervical carcinoma. Burning the TZ-transformation zone (Electro diathermy) destroys the tissue more effectively than that of cryotherapy but it usually requires general anesthesia, however laser cold coagulations technique requires local anesthesia usually. Laser TZ Excision compromises the fertility. Knife cone biopsy is used as a preferred treatment for removal of abnormal cervical cells. Now the cone biopsy is generally performed using the laser surgery. Early diagnosis of cervical cancer is very necessary for better control and treatment of it. For early phases of cervical carcinoma, the cryotherapy is very reasonable, however in case of late stage of the disease laser methods are used alone or on combination. Therapy will be termed successful if cytology remains negative after at least six months of its treatment.


Cervix; Cervical; Cervical Biopsy; Cervical Cancer; Vaginal Bleeding; CIN, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Cellular Proliferations; Differentiation; Cryotherapy.

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