Nazma Kiran, Nadia Aslam, Tahira Tabassum, Saadia Kanwal, Tanveer Zia


Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a principal cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The placenta, as a vector for maternal-fetal nutrient and oxygen exchange has major influence on birthweight. The objectives of this study were to compare the placental weight (grams), number of syncytial knots and number of blood vessels in villi of IUGR placentas versus normal placentas.
Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Rai Medical College, Sargodha, Pakistan in collaboration with Zainab Memorial Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from December 2016 to November 2018. Study group included 45 IUGR placentas and control group included 25 normal placentas. Placental weight in grams, number of syncytial knots and number of blood vessels in villi of placentas were three research variables. These were described by mean, minimum, maximum, range and standard deviation for each group separately and were compared between the two groups through independent-samples t-test.
Results: Descriptively the mean placental weight in grams in IUGR group (423.35±64.13g) was lower than control group placentas (535.92±44.57g). The number of syncytial knots in IUGR group placentas (22.04±5.21) was more than control group placentas (13.84±4.41). The number of blood vessels in IUGR placentas was lower than control group placentas. All three null hypothesis for research variables between the two groups were rejected (p=<.00001).
Conclusion: In this study, significant differences were found between the IUGR and normal placentas. All the major histologic findings pointed towards reduced blood flow to placentas resulting in restriction of blood flow to fetus.


Placenta; Intrauterine growth restriction; Birth weight; Placental villi; Fetal growth; Placental insufficiency.

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