Shandana Bawar, Farhadia Sadaf, Rehana Rahim, Nasreen Ruby Faiz


Background: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity. The diagnosis of menopause can usually be ascertained from vasomotor symptoms and prolonged episode of amenorrhea. Many factors including the socioeconomic status may affect the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in a society. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with low and high socioeconomic status.
Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Outpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from April 2009 to April 2010. Sample size was calculated to be 102, using WHO formula for sample size determination. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was used. Inclusion criteria was women with physiological menopause of <3 years. Women with induced menopause, simple hysterectomy, premature menopause, receiving any kind of hormone therapy, presence of medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and thyroid disorders were excluded from the study. Sample was divided into 2 groups on the basis of socio-economic status. Those with monthly income < PKR. 10,000 as low and >10,000 as high socio-economic group. Menopausal status and vasomotor symptoms were determined on history. The data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 10.0. Chi-square test was used and p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The mean age of the study women was 51.23±2.32 years. Comparison of vasomotor symptoms in the two socio-economic groups revealed; hot flushes in 15(29.41%) in low and 51(100%) in high socio-economic group (p<0.001), palpitation in 11(21.57%) in low and 45(88.24%) in high socio-economic group (p<0.001), and night sweats in 21(41.18%) in low and 49(96.08%) in high socio-economic group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms i.e. hot flushes, sweating and palpitation are more common in the high socioeconomic group in our community.


Menopause; Postmenopausal women; Vasomotor symptoms

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