Shazia Mahar, Jai Parkash, Chetan Das, Muhammad Saeed


Background: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is main complication of the birth asphyxia. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of outcome of term newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE).
Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was done at Neonatology Unit of National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from July, 2014 to January, 2015. Sample size was 162 cases selected through consecutive sampling technique. Mean age was 7.74 ±3.87 days. Males were 100 (61.7%) and females were 62 (38.3%). All neonates of either gender from birth to 14 days of life presented with gestational age >37 weeks &<42weeks and having history of initiate and sustain failure of breathing for ≥one minute after birth were enrolled. Patient was followed up till 14 days and final outcome was assessed in terms of mortality and improvement. The stages of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were assessed on the basis of Sarnat staging. Final outcome (improved / mortality) was assessed on 14thday of admission. All the data i.e. age of neonate in days, age groups, gestational age in weeks, gender, outcome (improved and mortality) HIE stages were entered in the pre designed proforma.
Results: There were 64 (39.50%) patients with HIE stage I, 62 (38.30%) with HIE stage II and 36 (22.2%) patients with HIE stage III. Improved outcome was observed in 137 (84.6%) while death was observed in 25 (15.40%) patients.
Conclusion: Severity of HIE (stage III) was found significantly associated with mortality.


Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; term newborn; Mortality.

Full Text:



Azam M, Malik FA. Birth asphyxia. Professional Med J 2004;11:416-22.

Ibrahim S, Parkash J. Birth asphyxia-Analysis of 235 cases: J Pak Med Assoc 2002;83:553-6.

Fahey J, CNM, MSN, MPH, King TL, et al. Intrauterine Asphyxia. J Midwifery Womens Health 2005;50:498-506.

Qureshi AM, Rehman A, Siddiqi TS. Hypoxic encephalopathy in neonates. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010;22:190-3.

Itoo BA, Al-Hawsawi ZM, Khan AH. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy incidence and risk factors in North Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2003;24:147-53.

Oztekin O, Kalay S, Tezel G, Akcakus M, Oygur N. Retrospectıve analysıs for newborn infants with hypoxıc ıschemıc encephalopathy. Basic Res J Med Clin Sc 2012;1:19-24.

Costello AM, Manandhar DS. Perinatal asphyxia in less developed countries. J British Paeds Assoc 1994;71:F1-F3

Memon S, Bibi S. To compare the outcome (early) of neonates with birth asphyxia in relation to place of delivery and at time of admission. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62:1277.

Saeed T, Zulfiqar R, Afzal MA, Raja TM, Haq MZ. Outcome of Asphyxiated Term Newborns in Relation to the Time of Referral to a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Rawal Med Coll 2012;16:34-6.

Ilah BG, Aminu MS, Musa A, Adelakun MB, Adeniji AO, Kolawole T. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Perinatal Asphyxia as Seen at a Specialist Hospital in Gusau, Nigeria. Sub-Saharan Afr J Med 2015;2:64-9

Padayachee N, Ballot DE. Outcomes of neonates with perinatal asphyxia at a tertiary academic hospital in Johannesburg, S. Afr. J. Child Health 2013;7:89-94.

Thakkar PA, Valia P, Parmar N, Javadekar B, Thakkar UP. Clinical profile, outcome and clinical indicators for poor prognosis in full term babies born with severe birth asphyxia: study from tertiary care hospital from western India. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics 2017;4:470-6.

Shah GS, Singh R, Das BK. Outcome of newborns with birth asphyxia. J Nepal Med Asso 2005;44:44-6.

Boskabadi H, Ashrafzadeh F, Doosti H, Zakerihamidi M. Assessment of risk factors and prognosis in asphyxiated infants. Iranian J Pediatrics 2015;25:1-5.

Velaphi S, Pattinson R. Avoidable factors and causes of neonatal deaths from perinatal asphyxia-hypoxia in South Africa: national perinatal survey. Annals Tropical Paedia 2007;27:99-106.

Ellis M, Manandhar N, Shrestha PS, Shrestha L, Manadhar DS, Costello AM. Outcome at 1 year of neonatal encephalopathy in Kathmandu, Nepal. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999;41:689-95

Jacobs S, Hunt R, Tarnow-Mordi W. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;:CD003311.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences