Amjad Ali, Aamer Ali Khattak, Zahid Ullah, Usman Ayub Awan, Azam Hayat, Zia Ur Rehman, Shams Uz Zaman, Hassan Khan


Background: Dengue is a major health problem around the world and contributes in high rate of morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency, time and place distribution of the dengue fever epidemic in District Swat.
Material & Methods: This hospital based, cross-sectional study was conducted in District Head Quarter Teaching Hospital Swat, KPK, Pakistan from August 07 to October 31, 2013, during dengue epidemic. Total of 9032 dengue suspected patients were registered on consecutive sampling technique. Demographic variables were gender, age groups and residence. Research variables were Dengue non-hemorrhagic and Dengue hemorrhagic fever. Blood samples were collected from non-hemorrhagic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever patients. Serum was obtained by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes after blood samples were properly clotted. Qualitative detection of dengue virus NS1 antigen was done on commercially available ICT-SD Dengue NS1 kit (Standard Diagnostic, South Korea) following manufacturer instructions. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS version 19. All variables being categorical were analyzed by frequency and percentages.
Results: Out of 9032 dengue suspected patients serum samples, 8638(96%) were found positive for dengue NS1 antigen. Out of 8638(96%) positive cases on NSI, 5889(68%) patients were males and 2749(32%) were females. The age group wise distribution of the male and female Dengue virus NS1 Antigen positive cases with the age group 21-30 was the modal age group.
Conclusion: The highest incidence of dengue fever was observed in young people. Effective awareness campaigns should be initiated at local, provincial and national level by health departments.


Dengue, Non-Structural dengue Antigen, Immunochromatographic technique.

Full Text:



Zafar H, Hayyat A, Akhtar N, Rizwan SF. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever. J Pak Med Assoc 2013; 63:770-1.

Rodenhuis-Zybert IA, Wilschut J, Smit JM. Dengue virus life cycle: viral and host factors modulating infectivity. Cell Mol Life Sci 2010; 67: 2773-86.

Naeem-Ullah U, Akram W. Dengue knowledge, attitudes and practices in Multan, Pakistan: an urban area at the verge of dengue infestation. Public Health 2009;123:452-3.

Ali A, Rehman HU, Nisar M, Rafique S, Ali S, Hussain A, et al. Seroepidemiology of dengue fever in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis 2013; 17: 518-23.

Gupta E, Dar L, Kapoor G, Broor S. The changing epidemiology of dengue in Delhi, India. Virol J 2006; 3: 92.

Halstead SB, Suaya JA, Shepard DS. The burden of dengue infection. Lancet 2007; 369: 1410-11.

Gubler DJ, Clark GG. Dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever: the emergence of a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1995; 1: 55-7.

Sabin AB, Schlesinger RW. Production of Immunity To Dengue with Virus Modified by Propagation In Mice. Science 1945; 101: 640-2.

Ahmed S, Ali N, Ashraf S, Ilyas M, Tariq WU, Chotani RA. Dengue fever outbreak: a clinical management experience. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2008; 18: 8-12.

Khan E, Kisat M, Khan N, Nasir A, Ayub S, Hasan R. Demographic and clinical features of dengue fever in Pakistan from 2003-2007: a retrospective cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2010; 5 :e12505.

Sajid A, Ikram A, Ahmed M. Dengue fever outbreak 2011: clinical profile of children presenting at madina teaching Hospital Faisalabad. J Univ Med Dent Coll 2012; 3: 47.

Idrees S, Ashfaq UA. A brief review on dengue molecular virology, diagnosis, treatment and prevalence in Pakistan. Genet Vaccines Ther 2012; 10: 6.

Murray NE, Quam MB, Wilder-Smith A. Epidemiology of dengue: past, present and future prospects. Clin Epidemiol 2013; 5: 299-309.

Durand JP, Couissinier-Paris P, Tolou H. Dengue fever: outbreak in southern Europe?. Rev Prat 2003; 53: 1403-10.

Senanayake S. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever--a diagnostic challenge. Aust Fam Physician 2006; 35: 609-12.

Jahan F. Dengue Fever (DF) in Pakistan. Asia Pac Fam Med 2011; 10: 1.

Nieto NC, Khan K, Uhllah G, Teglas MB: The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of Pakistan. Front Physiol 2012; 3: 250.

Wasay M, Channa R, Jumani M, Zafar A. Changing patterns and outcome of Dengue infection; report from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2008; 58: 488-9.

Fatima Z, Idrees M, Bajwa MA, Tahir Z, Ullah O, Zia MQ, et al. Serotype and genotype analysis of dengue virus by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis using samples from three mini outbreaks-2007-2009 in Pakistan. BMC Microbiol 2011; 11: 200.

Ahmed SI, Khalid MA, Baqai HZ, ALi SF, RAnja ZA. Dengue fever in Northern Pakistan: The Hepatic Implications. JRMC 2009; 13: 56-9.

Alam R, Siddiqui FM, Rahman S, Haque AK, Sarker CB, Siddiqui NI, et al. Management of dengue by the WHO guided national guidelines. Mymensingh Med J 2004; 13: 43-7.

Thomas EA, John M, Kanish B. Mucocutaneous manifestations of Dengue fever. Indian J Dermatol 2010; 55: 79-85.

Munir MA, Alam SE, Khan ZU, Saeed Q, Arif A, Iqbal R, et al. Dengue fever in patients admitted in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2014; 64: 553-9.

Eong OE. Changing pattern of dengue transmission in Singapore; Dengue Bulletin, 2001, pp 40-4.

Kaplan JE, Eliason DA, Moore M, Sather GE, Schonberger LB, Cabrera-Coello L, et al. Epidemiologic investigations of dengue infection in Mexico, 1980. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 117: 335-43.

Agarwal R, Elbishbishi EA, Chaturvedi UC, Nagar R, Mustafa AS: Profile of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever. Int J Exp Pathol 1999; 80: 143-9.

Qureshi JA, Notta NJ, Salahuddin N, Zaman V, Khan JA: An epidemic of Dengue fever in Karachi--associated clinical manifestations. J Pak Med Assoc 1997; 47: 178-81.

Vijayakumar TS, Chandy S, Sathish N, Abraham M, Abraham P, Sridharan G. Is dengue emerging as a major public health problem? Indian J Med Res 2005; 121: 100-7.

Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Chansang C, Kong-ngamsuk W, Paosriwong S, Boon-Long J, et al. Larval occurrence, oviposition behavior and biting activity of potential mosquito vectors of dengue on Samui Island, Thailand. J Vector Ecol 2001; 26: 172-80.

Ooi EE, Hart TJ, Tan HC, Chan SH. Dengue seroepidemiology in Singapore. Lancet 2001; 357: 685-6.

Ooi EE, Gubler DJ. Dengue in Southeast Asia: epidemiological characteristics and strategic challenges in disease prevention. Cad Saude Publica 2009; 25 Suppl 1: 115-24.

Yew YW, Ye T, Ang LW, Ng LC, Yap G, James L, et al. Seroepidemiology of dengue virus infection among adults in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2009; 38: 667-75.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences