Architectural changes of liver in response to alcohol

Sadaf Rasheed, Amir Amanullah, Muhammad Habib Ur Rehman, Muhammad Javed

Abstract



Background: Alcohol is a known hepatotoxic agent and cause different varieties of liver damages. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of alcohol on liver histology in albino rats.

Material & Methods: This study was an experimental Randomized Control Trial conducted at the experimental research laboratory of University of Health Sciences Lahore, from January to December 2010. Sixteen male albino rats of 6-8 weeks old, weighing 130-230 gm each were divided into two groups of eight rats each. Group A served as control and was given normal rat diet; Group B was given ethanol at a dose of 0.8ml/100gm/day for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for liver function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and its liver was removed.

Results: Mean values of ALT and GGT in gp A were 26.06 ± 7.13 and 23.33 ± 3.05 respectively while in gp B these values were 82.83 ± 10.89 and 76.33 ± 4.37 respectively. The mean size of hepatocytes in gp A & B was 19.03 ± 0.38 and 26.23 ± 0.54 respectively and the size of central vein in gp A & B was 78.5 ± 0.99 and 79.16 ± 1.35 respectively. Students “t test showed statistically significant increase in the mean values of ALT and GGT in group B as compared with those in group A, p<0.05. Liver was normal in appearance in all animals. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for weight and volume of the liver of group B when compared with those in group A was observed. Histological study of hepatocytes showed large number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, pyknotic nuclei and lymphocytes infiltration of portal areas. Students “t” test showed statistically significant difference in the mean value of the size of hepatocytes; Fischer exact test also showed statistically significant difference in the percentage of hepatocytes containing cytoplasmic vacuoles, pyknotic nuclei and percentage of portal areas showing lymphocytic infiltration, in the of the liver of the animals in group B, when compared with those in group A (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Ethanol is hepatotoxic in albino rats as evident from the functional derangement and structural changes in the liver.


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© 2011 Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences