Azmat Ali, Areeba Khan, Abdur Rahman Butt


Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of Chronic renal disease and thus end stage renal disease (ESRD). Early detection of glomerular changes along with strict glycemic control and management of different risk factors can help reduce risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). That’s why this study was planned in order to investigate the association between risk factors and estimated GFR in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Materials & Methods: An analytical study was conducted at KRL hospital Islamabad during November 01, 2021 - February 28, 2022. A total of 74 T2DM patients coming to hospital for Checkup were selected which were divided in two groups of 37 participants in each and data was obtained on a structured questionnaire. Normality of data was checked through Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. Means of two groups was compared through an independent sample T-test. To determine the association of variables, regression was applied and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In group 1 (eGFR >90ml/min) there were 62.5% females and 37.5% males while in group 2 (eGFR<90ml/min) there were 88.9% female and 11.1% were males. Duration of diabetes also affected eGFR as only 5.4% of the population in Group 1 (eGFR >90ml/min/1.73m2) was suffering from T2DM for more than 10 years whereas this percentage was 37.8% in Group 2 (eGFR 90-30ml/min/1.73m2) with the same duration of diabetes. Respondents in group 1 having HbA1C <7% were only 12.5% while those who had >7 were 87.5% while in group 2 there were 100% respondents with HbA1C of >7 and those with uncontrolled BSR (>200 mg/dl) were 66.7%.In concordance with these results duration of diabetes, smoking, control of DM, Hypertension, BMI and total cholesterol has significant effect on eGFR.

Conclusion: It was concluded that duration of DM, control of DM, hypertension control, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were associated with increased risk of developing DKD and thus lowering eGFR. Similarly reduced physical activity, increasing age, female gender and positive family history had the effect of reducing eGFR significantly as reported in group 2.


Diabetes Mellitus; ESRD; Prevalence; Diabetic nephropathy; chronic kidney disease.

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