INTRAVENOUS CANNULATION IN CHILDREN: COMPLICATIONS AND RISK FACTORS. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Muhammad Shabbir, Farooq Abdullah, Adulrahman Saad Alfaiz, Ambreen Liaqat, Muhammad Mohsin Sajjad, Olena Pokryshko, Muhammad Ijaz, Fouad Ayidh Awn Alshubayshiri, Ali Hamad Alwarthan, Muath AlAmmar

Abstract


Background: Intravenous cannulation (IVC) is a common medical procedure for administering fluids and medications, but it carries risks such as phlebitis and infection, particularly in children. This study aimed to determine the incidence of complications associated with IVC in children and identify associated risk factors.

Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2023 to March 2023. Data were collected from pediatric surgery and pediatric medicine units. A standardized Proforma was used to collect patient demographics, IVC insertion details, and complications. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods (quantitative data as mean and standard deviations, qualitative data as frequency and percentages). Chi square test was used to determine significance with p-value less than 0.05 as significant at 95% confidence interval.

Results: Among 279 patients, the most common complication was phlebitis (53.4%). The predominant insertion sites were the right and left hand dorsum (23.3% each), with 24G cannula being most frequently used (94.6%). Complications were more prevalent in patients with comorbidities. Longer duration of catheter placement correlated with increased complication rates. Phlebitis incidence rose from 2.3% on day 1 to 83.7% on day 3. Interestingly, complications were higher with glove use during insertion.

Conclusion: Complications associated with IVC insertion are higher in children with comorbid, using dominant hand and IVC on bony prominences or joints. Use of aseptic measures decreases the incidence of these complications. Further research is needed to explore preventive strategies and improve patient outcomes.


Keywords


Intravenous cannula; Phlebitis; Venous Access.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/22.02.1397

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