MOLECULAR SCREENING AND DISTRIBUTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN UROPATHOGEINC E.COLI ISOLATES AND ANTIBIOGRAM PATTERNS AMONG PATIENTS WITH UTI IN KARBALA PROVINCE

Alaq Ali Abdul Hussein, Masar Riyadh Rashid Almousawi, May Mohammed Ali

Abstract


Background: It has been determined that Escherichia coli is the prevailing uropathogen (50-90%) in both complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) possesses an extensive array of virulence factors, which confers the potential to induce urinary tract infections and is correlated with the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this research was to detect the distribution of virulence genes and their association with antibiotic resistance rates at the molecular level.

Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory at Al-Hussein Medical city teaching hospital, Laboratory of microbiology in Karbala province, Iraq. Urine samples were collected b/w October 2023 to January 2024, and transported for further analysis using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. The sampling technique used in the study can be described as convenience sampling. The identification of E.coli isolates was confirmed using 16rRNA, resistance and sensitivity to various antibiotics were determined with Vitek2 system. Identification of genes (fimH, KpsmII, Pap, ompT) by uniplex PCR.

Results: E.Coli was shown to be the most often isolated bacterium for various urine samples, with a percentage of 16(35.5%).The most virulent gene observed were Fim H, KpsMII, pap and OmpT were16 (100%), 13 (81.3%), 9(56.3%) and 8(50%) respectively. Thirteen type of antibiotics were identified sensitive to E.coli isolate the most common resistant rate was Ticarcillin, Pipraciilin had high resistance rate 14(87.5), Ciprofloxacin 9(56.3%), Minocycline, Aztreonam, Trimethoprim had rate of 8(50) . Sensitivity rate of Meropenem, Imipenem, Gentamicin was 14(87.5), Cefepime 13(81.25),Amikacin 12(75.0).

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is distribution of virulence gene in E.coli isolates , specially fimH,pap correlated with resistance to antibiotics specially with MDR and XDR patterns.


Keywords


Antibiotic sensitivity; MDR; Uropathogenic E.coli; Virulence gene; XDR.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Öztürk R, Murt A. Epidemiology of urological infections: a global burden. World J Urol. 2020;38(11):2669-79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-03071-4

Khonsari MS, Behzadi P, Foroohi F. The prevalence of type 3 fimbriae in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from clinical urine samples. Meta Gene. 2021;28(February):100881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mgene.2021.100881

Dickson K, Zhou J, Lehmann C. Lower Urinary Tract Inflammation and Infection: Key Microbiological and Immunological Aspects. J Clin Med. 2024;13(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020315

Raheem HQ, Al-Maliki L, Abdulzahra MA, Hussein TS. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) and Quinolone Resistance (qnr) Genes among Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-1-Producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Babylon, Iraq. Infect Epidemiol Microbiol. 2023;9(3):209-18. https://doi.org/10.61186/iem.9.3.209

Flores-Oropeza MA, Ochoa SA, Cruz-Córdova A, Chavez-Tepecano R, Martínez-Peñafiel E, Rembao-Bojórquez D, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from women with recurrent urinary tract infection. Front Microbiol. 2023;14(January). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2023.1340427

Majeed HT, Aljanaby AAJ. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of some extended spectrum beta-lactamases genes in gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients infected with urinary tract infections in Al-Najaf City, Iraq. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2019;11(2):192.

Mohamed KG, Aljanaby AAJ. Urinary tract infections in Al-Kufa City Iraq and phenotypic detection of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates. Int J Pharm Res. 2020;12(September):1454-8. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.SP1.222

Mlugu EM, Mohamedi JA, Sangeda RZ, Mwambete KD. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens with biofilm forming capacity among outpatients in morogoro, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2023;23(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-023-08641-x

Zagaglia C, Ammendolia MG, Maurizi L, Nicoletti M, Longhi C. Urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains-new strategies for an old pathogen. Microorganisms. 2022;10(7):1425. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071425

Sora VM, Meroni G, Martino PA, Soggiu A, Bonizzi L, Zecconi A. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Pathogens. 2021;10(11):1355. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111355

Govindarajan DK, Kandaswamy K. Virulence factors of uropathogens and their role in host pathogen interactions. Cell Surf. 2022;8:100075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcsw.2022.100075

Azam MW, Zarrilli R, Khan AU. Updates on the Virulence Factors Produced by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacterales and Strategies to Control Their Infections. Microorganisms. 2023;11(8):1901. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11081901

Klein RD, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: microbial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions and new treatment strategies. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020;18(4):211-26. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-0324-0

Chieng CCY, Kong Q, Liou NSY, Khasriya R, Horsley H. The clinical implications of bacterial pathogenesis and mucosal immunity in chronic urinary tract infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2023;16(1):61-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mucimm.2022.12.003

Mostafavi SKS, Najar-Peerayeh S, Mobarez AM, Parizi MK. Detection of virulence factors, phylogroups, serogroups and biofilm formation among CTX-M-1 positive Escherichia coli isolated from patients with pyelonephritis. Biomed Res. 2018;29(8):1543-9. https://doi.org/10.4066/biomedicalresearch.29-18-270

Bahalo S, Tajbakhsh E, Tajbakhsh S, Momeni M, Tajbakhsh F. Detection of some virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection isolated of children in Shahrekord Iran by multiplex PCR. Middle East J Sci Res. 2013;14(1):29-32.

Journal I, Adwan G. Molecular characterization of some new E. coli strains theoretically responsible for both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Int J Med Res Heal Sci. 2016;5(6):158-63.

Mohammed LS, Sweedan EG, Flayyih MT. Effects of alcoholic extracts of cinnamomum zeylanicum and origanum majorana on expression of hly gene in escherichia coli. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2020;14(3):937-42.

Baldiris-Avila R, Montes-Robledo A, Buelvas-Montes Y. Phylogenetic classification, biofilm-forming capacity, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Curr Microbiol. 2020;77:3361-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02173-2

Campos VRV, Vieira GS, Ramos LF, Baptista AB. Etiological and susceptibility profile of microorganisms causing urinary tract infection in pregnant women in the city of Palmas, Brazil. Res Soc Dev. 2022;11(15):e200111536973-e200111536973. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i15.36973

Ahmed AQ. Molecular detection of some virulence genes in E. coli isolated from women with urinary tract infectionsNo Title. 2021;1-157.

Haghighatpanah M, Mojtahedi A. Characterization of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from Iranian inpatients with urinary tract infections. Infect Drug Resist. 2019;2747-54. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S219696

Rahdar M, Rashki A, Miri HR, Ghalehnoo MR. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim adhesin-encoding operons in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates collected from patients with urinary tract infection. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015;8(8). https://doi.org/10.5812/jjm.22647

Naziri Z, Derakhshandeh A, Hajirajabi M, Abbasi F, Moezzi MS, Shirmohamadi Sosfad A. Molecular typing and virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli strains isolated from hospital and community acquired urinary tract infections. Mol Biol Rep. 2024;51(1):509. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-024-09485-7

Hasan RN, Jasim SA, Ali YH. Detection of fimH, kpsMTII, hlyA, and traT genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Iraqi patients with cystitis. Gene Reports. 2022;26:101468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genrep.2021.101468

Allami M, Bahreini M, Sharifmoghadam MR. Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic typing, and virulence genes profile analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients in southern Iraq. J Appl Genet. 2022;63(2):401-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13353-022-00683-2

Tajbakhsh E, Ahmadi P, Abedpour-Dehkordi E, Arbab-Soleimani N, Khamesipour F. Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroups and virulence genes of uropathogenic E. coli isolated from clinical samples in Iran. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2016;5(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-016-0109-4

Johnston BD, Thuras P, Porter SB, Anacker M, VonBank B, Snippes Vagnone P, et al. Activity of cefiderocol, ceftazidime-avibactam, and eravacycline against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the United States and international sites in relation to clonal background, resistance genes, coresistance, and region. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020;64(10):10-1128. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00797-20

Tarverdi MH, Sadraddin BR. The role of antibiotic-resistant E . coli isolates in urinary tract infections. 2024;149-52.

Meletis G. Carbapenem resistance: overview of the problem and future perspectives. Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2016;3(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.1177/2049936115621709

Alhamadani YST, Oudah AS. Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method. J Biomed Biochem. 2022;1(2). https://doi.org/10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Matamoros-Recio A, Franco-Gonzalez JF, Forgione RE, Torres-Mozas A, Silipo A, Martín-Santamaría S. Understanding the antibacterial resistance: Computational explorations in bacterial membranes. ACS omega. 2021;6(9):6041-54. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05590

Boroumand M, Sharifi A, Ghatei MA, Sadrinasab M. Evaluation of biofilm formation and virulence genes and association with antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Southwestern Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2021;14(9). https://doi.org/10.5812/jjm.117785

Ghavidel M, Gholamhosseini-Moghadam T, Nourian K, Ghazvini K. Virulence factors analysis and antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients in northeast of Iran. Iran J Microbiol. 2020;12(3):223. https://doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v12i3.3240




DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/22.02.1632

Refbacks



Copyright (c) 2024. Alaq Ali Abdul Hussein, Masar Riyadh Rashid Almousawi, May Mohammed Ali.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Gomal Medical College, Daraban Road, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

ISSN: 1819-7973, e-ISSN: 1997-2067

Website: https://www.gmcdikhan.edu.pk

Phone: +92-966-747373

Scimago Journal & Country Rank