Zahra H. Al-Wazni, Saif Ahmed Raheem, Fatimah H. Zayed, Hussein Amer Faraj, Mohammed Alaa Abdulzahra


Background: The most frequent infection that requires hospitalization is a urinary tract infection (UTI), which is frequently linked to gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This study aims to identify the kind of urine pathogens isolated from patients as well as their pattern of antibiotic resistance and relationship with the risk factors. During the period extending between October 2023 to January 2024.

Materials & Methods: Urine samples from 30 healthy controls and 50 probable UTI patients, ranging in age from 9 to 69, were collected. Sampling was done in the private clinic and Al-Kafeel hospital. The Vitek system was utilized to identify the bacterial growth, and before taking the sample, a questionnaire was taken from the patient, including age, gender, place of residence, whether or not he suffers from diseases related the urinary system ,and family history of the diseases.

Results: The findings indicated that the percentage of infection in females (56%, n=28) was higher than that in males (40%, n=20). In addition, in the 20-29 age group, there was the highest rate of infection, while the 60-69 age group had the lowest rate of infection. Out of 50 urine samples, the results also showed that 2 (4%) had no bacterial growth and 48 (96%) had considerable bacterial growth; only these samples were used in the current study. The bacterial isolates included 19/48 (38%) Escherichia coli, 11/48 (22%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 8/48 (16%) Enterococcus faecalis, 6/48 (12%) Staphylococcus aureus, 4/48 (8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Conclusion: In gram-negative bacteria, meropenem was mostly effective antibiotic, followed by doxycycline. However, in Gram-positive bacteria, linezolid is most effective antibiotic. Among risk factors for the UTIs and MDR-UTIs spread included a previous UTI (n=31, 62%), sexual activity (n=47, 94%), older age (n=29, 58%) and recent pregnancy (n=26, 52%). Determination of risk factors of UTIs is important needing prompt control strategies.


Urinary tract infections; Risk factors; antibiotic resistance; Kerbala; Iraq.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/22.02.1635


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