Stroke and its Relationship to Risk Factors

Mumtaz Ali Marwat, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Hussain


Background: Stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. This trial was conducted to study the risk factors for stroke in our set up.

Material & Methods: This observational study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Saidu Teaching Hospital Swat, from January 2006 to December 2006. Eighty-eight patients, 62 males and 26 females with stroke were included in the study. History, general physical and neurological examination was recorded. Relevant investigations were performed, risk factors noted and the outcome studied after one week.

Results: Out of 88 patients, 62 were males and 26 females with age range of 45-95 years (Mean 65.9+9.15). Cerebral infarction constituted 50%, intra-cerebral hemorrhage 29.5% and subarachnoid hemorrhage 11.3%. Hypertension was the most common risk factor 68 (75%) followed by diabetes mellitus 48 (54.5%), ischemic heart disease 32 (36.3%), hyperlipidaemia 12 (13.6%), smoking (13.6%) and valvular heart disease 6 (6.8%). Most of these patients on presentation were semi-comatosed (50%), few were comatosed (29.5%) or alert (20.5%) at presentation. The outcome of these patients was recorded after a week of presentation and it showed mortality in 24 (27.2%). There was no improvement in 22 (25%), 30 (34%) partially improved while complete recovery occurred in 12 (13.6%).

Conclusion: Mortality rate in stroke is 27.2% in our set up. The main risk factors for stroke are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, hyperlipidaemia and smoking. These can be modified by proper health education.

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