Shahid Nawaz, Fakhar Hayat, Sarfaraz Khan, Sarah Rehman, Noor Sardar, Shehla Aman


Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a common procedure for treatment of hydrocephalus. The objectives of the study were to determine the causes of hydrocephalus and complications of VP shunt in our pediatric population.

Materials & Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Gomal Medical College, D.I.Khan, Pakistan from January 2018 to January 2019. The sample size was 97 selected through consecutive, non-probability sampling technique using online sample size calculator, the Raosoft. The inclusion criteria were all pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. All those post-operative patient operated for other pathologies of brain and spine without VP shunt were excluded from the study. CT or MRI of brain with and without contrast were done. Post operatively all the patients were followed up till 6 months and any complication which occurred were documented. Demographic variable were sex and age in years. Research variables were causes of hydrocephalus and post-operative complications of VP shunt. All variables except age in years being categorical were analyzed through frequency and percentages. Age was calculated by mean and SD using SPSS version 20.

Results: Out of 97 patients, boys were 59(60.82%) and girls were 38(39.17%). The mean age of the sample was 4.5 ±5 ranging from 5 months to 13 years. The most common cause was aqueductal stenosis having 58(59.7 %), myelo-meningocele were 17(17.7%), post meningitis were 12(12.3%) and remaining 10(10.3%) were associated with brain tumors. Out of 21 patients 12(57.2%) developed shunt obstruction, 5(23.8%) shunt infection, 2(9.5%) developed post-operative seizures, 2(9.5%) had exteriorization of lower end of shunt through abdominal incision.

Conclusion: The most common cause of hydrocephalus is acqueductal stenosis. The most common complication of VP shunt is shunt obstruction in pediatric population, having pre-school boys as modal group.


Complications; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Pediatric population; Shunt obstruction; Shunt infection.

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