Muhammad Rashid, Younas Rehman, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Jamil, Amanullah Khan, Zeeshan Khan, Abdul Wahid, Najeeb Ullah, Hayat Ullah, Zohaib Khan Afridi, Asghar Khan, Asad Ullah


Background: Leishmaniasis is not an uncommon tropical disease. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is its most common form. The objectives of our study were to determine the distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis by sex, age groups and residence in year 2020 in cutaneous leishmaniasis population of District D.I.Khan, Pakistan.

Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Community Medicine, Gomal Medical College, D.I.Khan, Pakistan from July 1, 2021 to August 23, 2021. The data for cutaneous leishmaniasis was retrieved from District Health Office D.I.Khan for year 2020. A sample size of 419 was calculated from population at risk of 1,750,000 with 0.1034% margin of error, 95% confidence level and 0.01164% assumed prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sex, age groups and residence were our three nominal variables. Distribution was analyzed by count and percentage with 95% confidence intervals. Three hypotheses for distribution were testified by chi-square goodness of fit.

Results: Out of 419 positive cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 269 (64.20%) were men and 150 (35.80%) women, 254 (60.62%) in age group up to 19 years, 101 (24.11%) in age group 20-39 years and 64 (15.27%) in age group ≥40 years, and 113 (26.97%) were urban and 306 (73.03%) rural. Our distribution across sex (p=0.01327), age groups (p=<0.0001) and residence (p=<0.0001) were not similar to expected.

Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in year 2020 in cutaneous leishmaniasis population of District D.I.Khan, Pakistan was higher in men than women, highest in age group up to 19 years than age groups 20-39 and ≥40 years, and higher in rural than urban. The prevalence for men was higher than was expected for men and prevalence for women was lower than was expected for women. The prevalence for age group upto 19 years was highest than expected for this age group. The prevalence for rural was higher than was expected for rural and the prevalence for urban was lower than expected for urban.


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis; Leishmania donovani; Distribution; Sex; Age groups; Residence; Pakistan; Urban; Rural; Skin.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.46903/gjms/19.01.964


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