Hematological Presentation of Multiple Myeloma in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Inam ullah, Fazle Raziq, Muhammad Tahir, Rubina Wazir, Ahmad Rafiq


Background: Being a B-cell malignancy, multiple myeloma is characterized by clonal expansion and accumulation of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow compartment. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and hematological presentation of multiple myeloma in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Khyber Teaching Hospital and Fazle Raziq Laboratory Peshawar over a period of three years from March 2003 to April 2006. A total number of 3085 bone marrow aspirates were done during this period. Among these aspirates, 57 cases were diagnosed as multiple myeloma on the basis bone marrow cytology and results analyzed.

Results: The results of the study revealed that male: female ratio was 2.56:1, median age was: males 60 years and females 56 years. Frequency of multiple myeloma in all hematological malignancies was 5.3%, while the frequency of the same among all aspirates was 1.85%. The hematological findings showed anemia in 91% cases, thrombocytopenia in 29%, leucopenia in 10% and pancytopenia in 8.1%. Percentage of plasma cells in B.M arrow was 78.1 % of the bone marrow nucleated cells.

Conclusion: In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, males are affected more frequently than females by multiple myeloma. The percentage of MM among all hematological malignancies and the median age are lesser in this part of the world. Majority of patients present with anemia, MM should be included in the workup of anemia in patients above 50 years age.

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